CyberGhost VPN Review 2024: Is It Worth Using?

CyberGhost is a fast and secure VPN that offers a cheap alternative to many popular VPNs. But it doesn’t always provide an ideal experience connecting to servers and unblocking streaming content.
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Editorial Rating
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On CyberGhost's website

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  • High-speed global servers offering industry-leading 256-bit AES encryption and no data logs
  • Unlimited bandwidth, DNS and IP leak protection, and automatic kill switch available for up to 7 devices
  • Configurable with your router, smart TV, Amazon Fire TV stick, or gaming console
  • No split tunneling feature on desktop

CyberGhost is a popular VPN that offers high levels of security and privacy. You can use up to seven simultaneous connections and choose from more than 11,700 servers. Even better, CyberGhost is one of the most affordable VPNs available, starting at $2.03/mo (billed every two years).

We like that CyberGhost has a strict no-logs policy and is headquartered in a country (Romania) that’s against data retention laws. And its no-logs policy passed an independent third-party audit conducted by Deloitte in September 2022.

We don’t love the few hiccups we experienced with specific CyberGhost VPN connections, including trying to unblock Netflix on certain servers. However, the overall experience was still positive, especially for the price. Check out our CyberGhost VPN review to see our complete assessment with test results, features, pricing, and more.

  • Cheaper than top competitors Surfshark, PIA, NordVPN, and ExpressVPN
  • 11,700+ servers in over 126 locations
  • Specialized servers for regional streaming
  • Strict no-logs policy and transparency reports
  • Not headquartered in a Five, Nine, or 14 Eyes Alliance country
  • Split tunneling feature is limited to Android
  • Dedicated IP is extra
  • Doesn't offer a seamless streaming experience
In this article
Our experience
Who is it best for?
Prices and subscriptions
Is it safe?
Test results
Mobile app review
Fire TV Stick review
Customer support
Top alternatives
Bottom line

CyberGhost VPN overview

Price $2.03–$12.99/mo
Free version No
Max # of connected devices 7
# of servers 11,700+ in 126 locations
VPN protocol OpenVPN, WireGuard, IKEv2/IPsec
No-logs policy No logs
Headquarters Bucharest, Romania
Netflix access Yes
Details Get CyberGhost

How we test and rate VPNs

We complete standardized hands-on tests for each VPN we review so we can put their claims to the test. This includes vigorous third-party testing by comparing our internet speed while connected to different servers, checking for DNS leaks, making sure the kill switch actually works, and more. We also make sure we can comfortably access popular streaming sites, like Netflix, and still do our day-to-day work without interruption.

Once we’ve completed the testing, our editorial rating is calculated by taking into account key features you’d expect from a good product. We score each VPN in the following categories and use a weighted average to calculate the final rating out of 5 stars: price, server count, speed, security, and features.

Leading Protection, Even on Smart TVs and Gaming Consoles
Editorial Rating
Learn More
On CyberGhost's website
Save 83%
  • High-speed global servers offering industry-leading 256-bit AES encryption and no data logs
  • Unlimited bandwidth, DNS and IP leak protection, and automatic kill switch available for up to 7 devices
  • Configurable with your router, smart TV, Amazon Fire TV stick, or gaming console
  • No split tunneling feature on desktop

Our experience

Our experience testing Cyberghost was generally positive, with some hiccups here and there. 

We liked the UI, with plenty of options to find the right server for us among all their options, including servers that are optimized for streaming, torrenting, and gaming.

Cyberghost VPN server list

However, we didn’t love how some of the settings were located in different areas within the app. For example, you have to navigate to “Privacy settings” after clicking on the VPN tab if you want to find the kill switch feature. But the VPN protocol options are located in the general settings and then the “CyberGhost VPN” tab.

You would normally find all the VPN settings together in one spot for a better user experience. This isn’t a huge deal, but it’s still slightly annoying.

CyberGhost settings

We found our speed results varied a lot depending on the server we were using, but once we found a good one it was a smooth ride (reflecting the importance of a high server count).

We did run into some issues with high connection times and occasional lost connections. That's where its automatic kill switch comes in handy though.

Cyberghost VPN connection interrupted

The app also had plenty of technical options to get more customization over your connection, especially if you're really tech savvy and love having full control.

Overall, it was a good app when we weren't fiddling with finding the right server. For long term use, adding servers to your favorites will likely help you stay happy and connected.

Who is CyberGhost best for?

  • Recommended for people who want a secure VPN that’s affordable, offers plenty of servers, and can unblock certain streaming services.

CyberGhost is a top virtual private network (VPN) provider because it hits many of the right notes for its millions of users. These include high levels of privacy due to the CyberGhost no-logs policy.

In general, CyberGhost’s no-logs policy means it doesn’t collect, store, or share any of your personal information, and your personal data can’t be accessed by your internet service provider (ISP) or the government.

CyberGhost's parent company is Kape Technologies. Kape is a large company focused on privacy and security that has acquired multiple VPNs, including CyberGhost, ExpressVPN, Private Internet Access, and ZenMate VPN.

CyberGhost VPN prices and subscriptions

CyberGhost offers subscription plans ranging from $2.03–$12.99/mo and lasting one month, six months, or two years (usually with some extra months thrown in). The plans are the same in terms of features, but the price per month goes down as the length of the subscription increases.

1 Month6 Months
Lowest Price
2 Years + 2 Months
Price per month $12.99/mo $6.99/mo (billed every six months) $2.03/mo (billed every two years)

CyberGhost offers a whopping 45-day money-back guarantee for a full refund if you’re not satisfied with the product in the first 45 days. (This is a 14-day money-back guarantee if you’re on a one-month plan.)

CyberGhost also offers a free trial to check out the VPN without providing any payment information. It provides a 24-hour free trial for Windows and macOS, a 3-day free trial for Android, and a 7-day free trial for iOS.

Paying one month at a time is typically the most expensive option for any VPN service. If you want to save money on VPN costs, it’s best to choose the longer subscriptions for cheaper monthly rates.

Here’s how CyberGhost compares to other popular VPNs and their lowest monthly rates (at the time of writing):

  • CyberGhost: $2.03/mo (billed every two years) for 2 Years + 2 Months
  • Surfshark: $2.19/mo (billed biannually) for 24 Months + 2 Free Months
  • Private Internet Access: $3.99/mo (billed every two years) for 3 Years + 4 Months

  • NordVPN: $3.99/mo (billed every two years) for the Standard 2-Year plan + 3 Months
  • ExpressVPN: $6.67/mo (billed annually) for 12 Months + 3 Months

CyberGhost is the cheapest option among these VPNs, providing loads of features and benefits at a fraction of the price (especially compared with ExpressVPN). However, you might find it’s worth paying a little extra for NordVPN's reliability, or you might want to save a bit and get unlimited simultaneous connections with Surfshark. Private Internet Access also allows for unlimited connections, but it requires a longer-term commitment. 

CyberGhost payment options include:

  • Credit card (Visa, Mastercard, American Express, Discover)
  • PayPal
  • Amazon Pay
  • Google Pay
  • Bitcoin

Is CyberGhost safe?

CyberGhost VPN has a well-detailed logging policy that's crafted to respect user privacy to a great extent. It's clear from its policy that it doesn’t log real IP addresses or keep tabs on your browsing history, the content you access, or DNS queries.

This is reassuring if you’re keen on maintaining a private online footprint. CyberGhost’s terms of service further reinforce this stance by outlining the legal framework that governs its operations, primarily influenced by Romanian law, a country known for its pro-privacy stance.

However, closer scrutiny reveals a gap that might cause concern. CyberGhost is a subsidiary of Kape Technologies, a company headquartered in the U.K., a region with less favorable privacy laws, and a 14 Eyes intelligence alliance member. This alliance could potentially compel VPN providers to share user data among member countries.

Although CyberGhost’s operations are based in Romania, its affiliation with Kape Technologies could theoretically create a pathway for sharing user data with entities in less privacy-friendly jurisdictions. This data sharing may not be in your best interest.

In weighing the merits against the potential downsides, it's fair to say that CyberGhost makes a strong case for privacy thanks to its robust logging policy and Romanian jurisdiction.

Yet, the association with Kape Technologies injects a dose of uncertainty regarding absolute data protection. Discerning users might want to weigh this aspect when choosing CyberGhost as their VPN provider.

A comparative look at the best VPN services could provide a broader perspective on how CyberGhost stacks against industry benchmarks regarding user data protection.

CyberGhost VPN features

CyberGhost VPN highlights include its high number of servers and the fact you can select from more than 100 countries. The VPN app interface is also generally user-friendly and easy to navigate.

One downside is CyberGhost only offers split tunneling for Android. Split tunneling is a common feature that allows you to disable your VPN connection on certain apps to potentially help save on bandwidth. But CyberGhost hasn't totally forgotten about Windows users and offers an "exceptions" whitelisting workaround.

Server count and countries

  • 11,700+ servers in 126 countries

CyberGhost has 11,700+ servers in 126 countries, which should be more than enough to choose from for the average user’s VPN needs, including accessing regional streaming libraries. The server list includes options for Germany, France, China, and more. You can also select from loads of U.S. servers, such as New York, Las Vegas, and Seattle.

CyberGhost VPN servers in the U.S.

CyberGhost provides different types of servers:

  • Favorites: Servers you mark with a star for easy access
  • All servers: The full list of available servers
  • Dedicated IP: A dedicated IP address that costs extra
  • For gaming: Servers optimized for gaming
  • For torrenting: Servers optimized for torrenting
  • For streaming: Servers optimized for streaming

CyberGhost VPN streaming servers

No-logs policy and headquarters

  • CyberGhost logs policy: No logs
  • CyberGhost headquarters: Romania

CyberGhost states that it doesn’t keep any logs of your IP address, DNS queries, browsing history, accessed content, session duration, bandwidth usage, timestamps, and more.

CyberGhost supports its no-logs claims by being headquartered in Romania, which is a country that’s against data retention laws. This location also backs up the company’s claim of having a no-logs policy because Romania isn’t part of the Five, Nine, or 14 Eyes Alliances. These are known global surveillance groups that many countries are involved in.

Along with quarterly public transparency reports, CyberGhost passed an independent audit of its no-logs policy that was conducted by Deloitte in September 2022. 

CyberGhost hasn't had its no-logs policy audited, but it does provide quarterly transparency reports.

The quarterly reports show how often CyberGhost receives requests for its users’ personal data from police departments and other authorities. But because CyberGhost doesn’t store this type of information, it can’t comply with these requests.

CyberGhost also uses RAM-only servers for additional security and privacy. Data is wiped after each reboot, and removing a RAM-only server (if someone were to steal one, for example) completely erases all stored data.

Kill switch

CyberGhost has a kill switch feature that you can find in Privacy settings in the VPN area of the app.

CyberGhost has a kill switch feature that should disconnect your internet if the VPN fails, but our tests found it doesn't always work properly.

This feature automatically cuts your internet if you lose connection to the CyberGhost server, which means your real IP doesn't get leaked unexpectedly.

Split tunneling

CyberGhost doesn’t have a split tunneling feature for all of its apps, only for Android. This might not matter if you don’t need split tunneling, but it’s a common feature you can find with other VPN providers across desktop and mobile.

CyberGhost does provide an option to whitelist specific websites with its VPN.  This is similar to how split tunneling works because it lets you choose the websites you don't want the VPN enabled on (for example, Netflix). However, it’s not quite the same as full split tunneling functionality that also works with apps. Even still, this is the best option for Windows or macOS users.

But you can consider Surfshark for a smoother user experience and access to split tunneling (called Bypasser on Surfshark).

Find this option in Smart rules > Exceptions.

CyberGhost doesn't have a split tunneling feature, but it does allow you to whitelist specific websites under the Smart rules settings so they don't run through the VPN connection.


CyberGhost uses AES-256 encryption, which is the best encryption available. CyberGhost estimates that a normal computer would take much longer than billions of years to crack this level of encryption.

VPN protocol

CyberGhost uses these VPN protocols:

  • OpenVPN
  • WireGuard
  • IKEv2/IPsec

Note that the type of protocol available to you in the CyberGhost VPN app typically depends on the type of app you’re using. For example, you might not have the same options available in the Android app compared with the Windows app.

We were able to see options for IKEv2 and WireGuard when using the iPhone app, but then we were able to see options for OpenVPN, IKEv2, and WireGuard when using the Windows app. Find the different protocols in CyberGhost VPN settings.

CyberGhost uses the WireGuard, OpenVPN, and IKEv2/IPsec VPN protocols.

It’s recommended to let CyberGhost automatically choose your VPN protocol so it can select the best one based on your connection. However, all three of the available options are considered secure, and both OpenVPN and WireGuard are two of the most secure protocols. 

CyberGhost VPN test results

In a realm where performance and privacy are paramount, running a gamut of tests on VPN services like CyberGhost provides an insight into their real-world performance. Our tests spanned across various domains, including internet speeds, security, and the ability to unblock geo-restricted content.

These tests are pivotal as they reflect the efficiency and reliability of the VPN and its potential impact on your daily online interactions. From our assessment, CyberGhost adeptly maneuvered through the security and unblocking tests. However, it had some noteworthy results in the speed tests.

CyberGhost internet speeds

  • CyberGhost speed test results: CyberGhost dropped our download speed by an average of 64%, which is a bit high.

Testing the internet speeds while using the CyberGhost VPN app was conducted on a Windows laptop. During the testing phase, platforms like Netflix were utilized to check for any lag or buffering issues. The baseline internet speed, recorded without the VPN turned on, showcased a download speed of 186.21 Mbps, an upload speed of 53.89 Mbps, and a latency of 16 ms.

As the VPN was activated, our download speeds did decrease across different server locations. Despite the decrease, the streaming experience on Netflix remained smooth with no noticeable lag.

However, Zoom encountered a slight delay during a US-to-EU connection, possibly due to the increased latency of 252 ms. The latency, as expected, increased as the server locations moved further away from the source.

CyberGhost speed test results

Test type No VPN Canada to Canada Canada to US Canada to EU Canada to AU
Download speed 186.21 Mbps 38.29 Mbps 97.36 Mbps 108.47 Mbps 32.05 Mbps
Upload speed 53.89 Mbps 46.3 Mbps 51.94 Mbps 39.73 Mbps 36.07 Mbps
Latency (ping) 16 ms 42 ms 86 ms 252 ms 263 ms
Download speed % difference N/A -79% -48% -42% -83%
Upload speed % difference N/A -14% -4% -26% -33%
Latency % difference N/A 163% 438% 1,475% 1,544%
Test results as of 06/07/2024.

Is CyberGhost good for streaming?

  • Netflix test results: CyberGhost successfully unblocked Netflix in the U.S., EU, and Canada.

CyberGhost is an adept companion for streaming lovers. Its extensive server network unblocks geo-restricted content on platforms like Netflix across various regions, including the U.S., U.K./EU, and Canada.

CyberGhost successfully unblocked Netflix in France, Canada, Australia, and the U.S.

Our tests revealed a seamless streaming experience with CyberGhost in most countries we tested, enabling access to content otherwise restricted in specific geographical locales. This makes CyberGhost a compelling choice for cinephiles looking to traverse various international cinematic and television offerings.

The only issue we ran into was Australia, which has been a theme with our VPN tests recently.

CyberGhost VPN Australian Netflix blocked

If you want to watch Netflix with CyberGhost, you may need to try a few different servers if you find Netflix has blocked the VPN. This isn't necessarily a flaw on CyberGhost's part, as Netflix is constantly trying to find new ways to detect VPN connections and block them. But connecting to a different server might be the difference between streaming The Witcher and getting an error.

CyberGhost VPN Netflix test results

Canada to U.S. Canada to U.K. Canada to Canada US to AU
Did it work with Netflix?
Test results as of 06/07/2024.

We like how CyberGhost has loads of specific servers that are optimized for streaming. This is potentially more helpful than trying random servers until you find one that works for the streaming service you want to use.

We actually ran into an issue where Netflix completely blocked us from accessing the site when connected to a Canadian server:

CyberGhost blocked from Canadian Netflix

Luckily, we were able to get access by switching to a server that was optimized for Canadian Netflix.

CyberGhost VPN access to Canadian Netflix

For the most part, we had success testing out different streaming services while using CyberGhost. But there were a few instances where the experience could have been much better, which has left us wondering whether another VPN might be an easier (and thus better) option for streaming.

One of the VPNs we recommend for Netflix and other streaming services is ExpressVPN. It’s on the pricier side, but we had no issues using ExpressVPN to unblock Netflix content in other countries. 

Note that CyberGhost has loads of optimized servers for streaming, including Disney+, HBO Max, Hulu, BBC iPlayer, Amazon Prime, Paramount+, Sling TV, ESPN+, and Peacock.

Does CyberGhost leak your IP address?

  • CyberGhost DNS leak test results: Passed
  • CyberGhost WebRTC leak test results: Passed

DNS is the system that translates domain names to IP addresses, enabling browsers to load internet resources. A DNS leak test is crucial as it signifies whether your online activity is exposed to your ISP or other third parties, despite using a VPN. Passing this test reflects CyberGhost's ability to maintain your privacy by preventing any DNS leaks. 

On the other hand, WebRTC is a free, open-source project that provides web browsers and mobile applications with real-time communication via simple application programming interfaces (APIs). A WebRTC leak test is significant as it checks if your actual IP address is being leaked while using WebRTC in your browser.

Our tests showed that CyberGhost effectively prevents any WebRTC leaks, ensuring that your real IP address is not exposed during your online sessions, which is crucial for maintaining privacy, especially during video calls or any real-time communication on the web.

Kill switch test

  • Kill switch test results: Failed

We tested the kill switch with a few mock scenarios. This included:

  • Turning on airplane mode on our laptop
  • Manually disconnecting the VPN in the app
  • Ending the CyberGhost process using the Windows Task Manager
  • Switching servers while ran to check if our real IP showed up in between servers

The airplane mode test was inconclusive, as we couldn’t tell whether the kill switch was working. CyberGhost did not indicate that it had done anything (whereas ExpressVPN notifies you if internet traffic is being blocked).

Also, our internet continued to work after manually disconnecting from CyberGhost and shutting down the app using Task Manager. This is unfortunate because, according to the CyberGhost support website about VPN connection drops, that’s not how the kill switch feature is supposed to work.

CyberGhost claims that its kill switch feature immediately ends all internet connections if the VPN fails, but our tests found it doesn't block all traffic like it should.

CyberGhost definitely did not end all incoming and outgoing internet connections when we disconnected from the VPN.

The test was also not favorable towards CyberGhost. When we switched from a U.S. to Quebec server, our real IP address in New Brunswick showed up in between.

CyberGhost kill switch test

CyberGhost VPN compatibility

It’s easy to set up the CyberGhost app on a number of different devices, operating systems, mobile apps, and browser extensions, including:

Operating system Browsers Apps, smart TVs, and hardware
Compatible with * Windows
* macOS
* Linux
* Android
* iOS
* Google Chrome
* Mozilla Firefox
* Microsoft Edge
* Android TV
* Amazon Fire TV
* PlayStation
* Xbox
* Nintendo Switch
* Routers
* And more

CyberGhost VPN mobile app review

We tested the CyberGhost VPN using an iPhone to see how it performed. Overall, our CyberGhost VPN iPhone review went smoothly, allowing us to surf the web and unblock streaming content.

Certain streaming services aren’t available in non-U.S. countries or have different content libraries. This includes Hulu, Netflix, HBO Max, Paramount+, and Disney+. We tested each of these apps on our Apple iPhone 12 mini while we were located in the U.K.

CyberGhost VPN iOS app test results

Streaming service Did it work? Server used
Hulu New York, US
HBO Max Chicago, US
Paramount+ Los Angeles, US
Disney+ New York, US

CyberGhost VPN Fire TV Stick review

We tested the CyberGhost VPN using an Amazon Fire TV Stick while located in the U.K. There’s nothing fancy about the CyberGhost VPN Fire Stick app, but it worked for everything we tried other than Hulu and Prime Video.

CyberGhost VPN Amazon Fire TV Stick test results

Streaming service Did it work? Server used
Hulu Los Angeles, US
Netflix US Los Angeles, US
Netflix Germany Frankfurt, Germany
HBO Max Chicago, US
Paramount+ Washington, DC, US
Disney+ Dallas, US
Amazon Prime Video Los Angeles, US

CyberGhost customer support

You can access support options on the CyberGhost website, through email, and 24/7 live chat. You can also submit feedback or bugs through the CyberGhost app or website or email CyberGhost directly at

The CyberGhost support website offers guides, troubleshooting tips, FAQs, announcements, and more. You can also access the chat and live chat features here, though we found that the standard chat feature wasn’t super helpful.

The step-by-step guides can be especially helpful if you want to install the CyberGhost app on a specific device or operating system. They could also be helpful if you’re running into a specific problem with your device. For example, you might want to use CyberGhost’s Smart DNS service to configure your PlayStation for watching regional streaming content. Turns out there’s a guide for that.

Top alternatives

When securing your online presence, having various options can help you find a solution that fits your needs perfectly. Below are some alternatives to CyberGhost VPN, each with unique features, pricing, and performance metrics. Comparing these alternatives against CyberGhost can provide a clearer understanding of what each service offers.

Price $3.99–$15.99/mo $2.19–$17.95/mo $2.19–$11.99/mo
Free version
Max # of connected devices 10 Unlimited Unlimited
# of servers 6,300+ servers in 111 countries 3,200 in 100 countries Servers in 91 countries
VPN protocol NordLynx (WireGuard), OpenVPN, IKEv2/IPsec WireGuard, OpenVPN, IKEv2 WireGuard, OpenVPN
Encryption AES 256-bit AES 256-bit AES-128-GCM
No-logs policy No logs No logs No logs
Headquarters Panama The Netherlands United States
Netflix access
Learn more Get NordVPN Get Private Internet Access Get CyberGhost

CyberGhost FAQs


Is CyberGhost VPN trustworthy?

Yes, CyberGhost VPN is considered to be trustworthy. It has a strict no-logs policy and is headquartered in Romania, a country that’s against data retention and not located within a global surveillance network such as the Five, Nine, or 14 Eyes Alliances.


What are the benefits of CyberGhost VPN?

The benefits of CyberGhost VPN include:

  • A low monthly cost of $2.03/mo (billed every two years) for two years
  • Servers in 126 countries
  • Up to seven simultaneous device connections
  • Unblocking regional streaming content
  • Apps for different operating systems and mobile devices
  • A strict no-logs policy
  • Headquarters in a country (Romania) that’s against data retention


Can CyberGhost VPN be tracked?

CyberGhost VPN can’t typically be tracked. No VPN or security measure is completely private or secure, but CyberGhost has a strict no-logs policy. This means CyberGhost doesn’t keep logs of your online activity while you use its VPN. CyberGhost is also headquartered in Romania, which is a country that’s against data retention.


Is CyberGhost better than NordVPN?

NordVPN is better than CyberGhost in our experience. It provides fast speeds and top-level security at a modest price. CyberGhost is definitely cheaper, but we experienced more connection issues with CyberGhost compared to NordVPN. However, both VPN providers offer quality products that are popular for a reason.


How much is CyberGhost a month?

The price of CyberGhost per month depends on your subscription plan. Here’s how much CyberGhost plans cost:

  • One-month plan: $12.99/mo
  • Six-month plan: $6.99/mo (billed every six months)
  • Two-year plan: $2.03/mo (billed every two years)

Bottom line: Is CyberGhost VPN good?

Yes, CyberGhost is a good VPN service that does just about everything right. It’s secure, offers an automatic kill switch, and is cheaper than many other popular VPNs. You can also use CyberGhost to unblock streaming content with Netflix and other similar services.

But we can't say CyberGhost is the best VPN out there since the experience isn’t always seamless. We had a few issues connecting to certain servers, and our speeds were spotty, which could mean there are a few duds in the massive CyberGhost server list.

If you want proven and tested reliability at a slightly higher price point, consider NordVPN. We like Nord because it strikes a balance between being ultra-reliable and affordable at the same time. Check out our NordVPN review for more details.

We've also compared CyberGhost against many top VPNs, which you can read more about here:

Leading Protection, Even on Smart TVs and Gaming Consoles
Editorial Rating
Learn More
On CyberGhost's website
Save 83%
  • High-speed global servers offering industry-leading 256-bit AES encryption and no data logs
  • Unlimited bandwidth, DNS and IP leak protection, and automatic kill switch available for up to 7 devices
  • Configurable with your router, smart TV, Amazon Fire TV stick, or gaming console
  • No split tunneling feature on desktop
Author Details
Ben Walker is a security, travel, and credit card writer with a passion for all things internet and technology, whether it's using VPNs while away from home or organizing his life with password managers.
Kalleigh Lane is a passionate digital security advocate and the Lead Editor at All About Cookies. After completing her Master of Arts in English Literature, Kalleigh has gained over 5 years of editing and writing experience in the fields of cybersecurity, tech, and finance. She has been featured in major media outlets such as The Globe and Mail and CTV News, emerging as an advocate for digital security.